|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$858||Benefits minus costs||$1,684|
|Participants||$243||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.78|
|Others||$886||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$304||benefits greater than the costs||83 %|
|Net program cost||($607)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,684|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Blood sugar (HbA1c)^
Measure of average blood sugar over 10-12 weeks.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Major depressive disorder||Health care associated with major depression||$858||$243||$886||$429||$2,416|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$178||$178|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($303)||($303)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$576||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($607)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Bogner, H.R., & de Vries, H.F. (2008). Integration of depression and hypertension treatment: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Annals of Family Medicine, 6(4), 295-301.
Bogner, H.R., & de Vries, H.F. (2010). Integrating type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression treatment among African Americans; a randomized controlled pilot trial. The Diabetes Educator, 36(2), 284-292.
Williams, J.W.J., Katon, W., Lin, E.H., Nöel, P.H., Worchel, J., Cornell, J., . . . IMPACT Investigators. (2004). The effectiveness of depression care management on diabetes-related outcomes in older patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140(12), 1015-24.