|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$37||Benefits minus costs||($44)|
|Participants||$10||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.49|
|Others||$38||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($43)||benefits greater than the costs||35 %|
|Net program cost||($86)|
|Benefits minus cost||($44)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Health care (total costs)||$37||$10||$38||$0||$85|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($43)||($43)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$83||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($86)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||16 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Emergency department visits*||45||6||112332||-0.038||0.015||45||0.000||0.000||46||-0.038||0.010|
|Health care costs*||45||4||68571||-0.013||0.024||45||0.000||0.000||46||-0.013||0.575|
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