|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,231||Benefits minus costs||($41,893)|
|Participants||$10,236||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.00|
|Others||$8,220||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($22,864)||benefits greater than the costs||17 %|
|Net program cost||($41,716)|
|Benefits minus cost||($41,893)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any form of welfare assistance, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
Any employment, including part-time work.
Preschool test scores^
Measures of cognition in young children on standardized scales.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Public assistance||Public assistance||($1,523)||$556||$0||($761)||($1,728)|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||($2,512)||($5,902)||$0||$1,256||($7,158)|
|From secondary participant|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$6,633||$15,581||$8,219||($3,317)||$27,118|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$46||$0||$0||$23||$69|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$1,586||$0||$0||$793||$2,379|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$1||$0||$1||$0||$2|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($20,858)||($20,858)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$13,636||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($41,716)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Brooks-Gunn, J., McCormick, M.C., Shapiro, S., Benasich, A.A., & Black, G.W. (1994). The effects of early education intervention on maternal employment, public assistance, and health insurance: The Infant Health and Development Program. American Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 924-931.
Gross, R.T., Spiker, D., & Haynes, C.W. (1997). Helping low birth weight, premature babies: The infant health and development program. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Infant Health and Development Program. (1990). Enhancing the outcomes of low-birth-weight, premature infants: A multisite, randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(22), 3035-3042.
Martin, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Klebanov, P., Buka, S.L., & McCormick, M.C. (2008). Long-term maternal effects of early childhood intervention: Findings from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP). Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 101-117.
McCarton, C.M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Wallace, I.F., Bauer, C.R., Bennett, F.C., Bernbaum, J.C., Broyles, S., Casey, P.H., McCormick, M.C., Scott, D.T., Tyson, J., & Tonascia, C.M. (1997). Results at age 8 years of early intervention for low-birth-weight premature infants: The Infant Health and Development Program. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(2), 126-132.
McCormick, M.C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Buka, S.L., Goldman, J., Yu, J., Salganik, M., Scott, D.T., Bennett, F.C., Kay, L.L., Bernbaum, J.C., Bauer, C.R., Martin, C., Woods, E.R., Martin, A., & Casey, P.H. (2006). Early intervention in low birth weight premature infants: Results at 18 years of age for the infant health and development program. Pediatrics, 117(3), 771-780.