|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,165||Benefits minus costs||($39,230)|
|Participants||$10,077||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.05|
|Others||$8,092||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($20,485)||benefits greater than the costs||19 %|
|Net program cost||($41,079)|
|Benefits minus cost||($39,230)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings||($2,473)||($5,810)||$0||$0||($8,283)|
|From secondary participant|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$6,530||$15,339||$8,092||$0||$29,961|
|K-12 grade repetition||$46||$0||$0||$23||$68|
|K-12 special education||$1,563||$0||$0||$781||$2,344|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$1||$0||$1||$0||$2|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($20,540)||($20,540)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$13,636||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($41,079)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||1||Secondary||2||334||-0.001||0.107||8||0.000||0.064||11||-0.001||0.996|
|K-12 grade repetition||1||Secondary||1||338||-0.044||0.229||8||-0.044||0.229||8||-0.044||0.849|
|K-12 special education||1||Secondary||1||338||-0.112||0.209||8||-0.112||0.209||8||-0.112||0.592|
|Preschool test scores^||1||Secondary||2||347||0.506||0.184||3||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.506||0.006|
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