|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,224||Benefits minus costs||($39,780)|
|Participants||$10,218||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.05|
|Others||$8,206||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($20,772)||benefits greater than the costs||19 %|
|Net program cost||($41,655)|
|Benefits minus cost||($39,780)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any employment, including part-time work.
Any form of welfare assistance, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Preschool test scores^
Measures of cognition in young children on standardized scales.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Public assistance||Public assistance||($1,521)||$555||$0||($761)||($1,727)|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||($2,508)||($5,891)||$0||$0||($8,399)|
|From secondary participant|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$6,622||$15,554||$8,205||$0||$30,381|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$46||$0||$0||$23||$69|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$1,585||$0||$0||$792||$2,377|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$1||$0||$1||$0||$2|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($20,827)||($20,827)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$13,636||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($41,655)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Gross, R.T., Spiker, D., & Haynes, C.W. (1997). Helping low birth weight, premature babies: The infant health and development program. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
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McCarton, C.M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Wallace, I.F., Bauer, C.R., Bennett, F.C., Bernbaum, J.C., Broyles, S., Casey, P.H., McCormick, M.C., Scott, D.T., Tyson, J., & Tonascia, C.M. (1997). Results at age 8 years of early intervention for low-birth-weight premature infants: The Infant Health and Development Program. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(2), 126-132.
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