|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,416||Benefits minus costs||$6,117|
|Participants||$5,023||Benefit to cost ratio||$13.69|
|Others||$296||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,136)||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||($482)|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,117|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
An attempt to die by suicide resulting in survival.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Major depressive disorder||Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$1||$1|
|Anxiety disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$25||$0||$0||$13||$38|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$2,104||$4,942||$0||($1,052)||$5,993|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||$287||$81||$296||$143||$807|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($241)||($241)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$457||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($482)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Thompson, E.A., Eggert, L.L., Randell, B.P., & Pike, K.C. (2001). Evaluation of indicated suicide risk prevention approaches for potential high school dropouts. American Journal of Public Health, 91(5), 742-752.