|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$801||Benefits minus costs||($945)|
|Participants||$398||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.55|
|Others||$675||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($715)||benefits greater than the costs||27 %|
|Net program cost||($2,104)|
|Benefits minus cost||($945)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$20||$0||$45||$10||$76|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$126||$297||$162||$0||$585|
|K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$2||$5|
|K-12 special education||$208||$0||$0||$104||$311|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$462||$131||$477||$231||$1,301|
|Costs of higher education||($20)||($30)||($9)||($10)||($68)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,052)||($1,052)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,993||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,104)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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