|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$788||Benefits minus costs||($937)|
|Participants||$392||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.55|
|Others||$664||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($706)||benefits greater than the costs||27 %|
|Net program cost||($2,075)|
|Benefits minus cost||($937)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$125||$293||$160||$0||$577|
|K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$2||$5|
|K-12 special education||$205||$0||$0||$102||$307|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$454||$128||$469||$227||$1,278|
|Costs of higher education||($19)||($29)||($9)||($10)||($67)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,037)||($1,037)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,993||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,075)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||4||Primary||5||87||-0.123||0.175||4||0.000||0.141||5||-0.670||0.001|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||4||Primary||12||340||-0.166||0.093||4||-0.091||0.068||7||-0.792||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder^^||37||Secondary||2||27||-0.114||0.304||37||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.426||0.320|
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