|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,308||Benefits minus costs||$4,816|
|Participants||$4,881||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.19|
|Others||$3,711||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,028)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($4,057)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,816|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$2,323||$5,458||$2,989||$0||$10,770|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$2||$0||$4|
|Health care associated with cannabis abuse or dependence||$20||$4||$22||$10||$56|
|Costs of higher education||($385)||($583)||($175)||($192)||($1,334)|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$1||$0||$8||$10|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,029)||($2,029)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,905||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,057)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||60 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||15||2||311||-0.109||0.204||16||-0.109||0.204||18||-0.134||0.511|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||15||1||76||-0.260||0.225||16||-0.260||0.225||18||-0.260||0.246|
|Grade point average^||15||3||322||0.047||0.087||17||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.106||0.226|
|High school graduation||15||2||758||0.101||0.143||18||0.101||0.143||18||0.293||0.040|
|Office discipline referrals^||15||1||179||0.048||0.124||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.125||0.316|
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