|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,914||Benefits minus costs||$4,800|
|Participants||$3,094||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.11|
|Others||$641||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($63)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($785)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,800|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$107||$252||$138||$0||$497|
|K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$2||$5|
|K-12 special education||$181||$0||$0||$90||$271|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$331||$93||$341||$165||$931|
|Costs of higher education||($17)||($26)||($8)||($9)||($60)|
|From secondary participant|
|Health care associated with major depression||$127||$36||$131||$63||$357|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$1,166||$2,738||$0||$0||$3,904|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$9||$10|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($393)||($393)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,730||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($785)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||6||Primary||7||311||-0.112||0.096||6||-0.062||0.064||9||-0.761||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder^^||6||Primary||1||26||-0.208||0.495||6||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.910||0.124|
|Major depressive disorder||35||Secondary||2||79||-0.094||0.201||35||-0.049||0.246||37||-0.411||0.043|
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