|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$164||Benefits minus costs||$397|
|Participants||$21||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.27|
|Others||$26||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$499||benefits greater than the costs||80 %|
|Net program cost||($313)|
|Benefits minus cost||$397|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
An event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Falls||Health care associated with falls||$164||$21||$26||$82||$293|
|Mortality associated with falls||$0||$0||$0||$573||$573|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($156)||($156)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$188||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($313)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||45 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Carter, N.D., Khan, K.M., McKay, H.A., Petit, M.A., Waterman, C., Heinonen, A., . . . Flicker, L. (2002). Community-based exercise program reduces risk factors for falls in 65-to 75-year-old women with osteoporosis: randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 167(9), 997-1004.
Korpelainen, R., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Heikkinen, J., Väänänen, K., & Korpelainen, J. (2006). Effect of impact exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women with low BMD: a population-based randomized controlled 30-month intervention. Osteoporosis International, 17(1), 109-118.
Madureira, M.M., Takayama, L., Gallinaro, A.L., Caparbo, V.F., Costa, R.A., & Pereira, R.M.R. (2007). Balance training program is highly effective in improving functional status and reducing the risk of falls in elderly women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporosis International, 18, 419-425.