|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$516||Benefits minus costs||$400|
|Participants||$65||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.25|
|Others||$81||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,326||benefits greater than the costs||65 %|
|Net program cost||($1,589)|
|Benefits minus cost||$400|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Emergency department visits^^
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
Hospitalization as a result of a fall.
An event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Falls||Health care associated with falls||$516||$65||$81||$258||$920|
|Mortality associated with falls||$0||$0||$0||$1,862||$1,862|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($794)||($794)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,508||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,589)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||70 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Conroy, S., Kendrick, D., Harwood, R., Gladman, J., Coupland, C., Sach, T., . . . Masud, T. (2010). A multicentre randomised controlled trial of day hospital-based falls prevention programme for a screened population of community-dwelling older people at high risk of falls. Age and Ageing, 39(6), 704-710.
Davison, J., Bond, J., Dawson, P., Steen, I.N., & Kenny, R.A. (2005). Patients with recurrent falls attending Accident & Emergency benefit from multifactorial intervention—a randomised controlled trial. Age and Ageing, 34(2), 162-8.
Spice, C.L., Morotti, W., George, S., Dent, T.H., Rose, J., Harris, S., & Gordon, C.J. (2009). The Winchester Falls Project: A randomised controlled trial of secondary prevention of falls in older people. (Age and Ageing, 38( (1), 33-40.