|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$658||Benefits minus costs||$3,405|
|Participants||$83||Benefit to cost ratio||$11.16|
|Others||$103||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,897||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($335)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,405|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Hospitalization as a result of a fall.
An event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Falls||Health care associated with falls||$658||$83||$103||$329||$1,172|
|Mortality associated with falls||$0||$0||$0||$2,735||$2,735|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($168)||($168)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$318||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($335)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Campbell, A.J., Robertson, M.C., La Grow, S.J., Kerse, N.M., Sanderson, G.F., Jacobs, R.J., . . . Hale, L.A. (2005). Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged ≥75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial. BMJ, 331(7520), 817.
Cumming, R.G., Thomas, M., Szonyi, G., Salkeld, G., O'Neill, E., Westbury, C., & Frampton, G. (1999). Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards: A randomized trial of falls prevention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, (47) 12, 1397-1402.
Nikolaus, T., & Bach, M. (2003). Preventing falls in community-dwelling frail older people using a home intervention team (HIT): Results from the randomized Falls-HIT Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51 (3), 300-305.
Pardessus, V., Puisieux, F., Di Pompeo, C., Gaudefroy, C., Thevenon, A., & Dewailly, P. (2002). Benefits of home visits for falls and autonomy in the elderly: a randomized trial study. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81 (4), 247-252.