|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,039||Benefits minus costs||$3,646|
|Participants||$531||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$851||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$695||benefits greater than the costs||98 %|
|Net program cost||$530|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,646|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$28||$0||$64||$14||$106|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$178||$418||$228||$0||$824|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|K-12 special education||$303||$0||$0||$151||$454|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$554||$157||$571||$277||$1,558|
|Costs of higher education||($29)||($43)||($13)||($14)||($99)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$265||$265|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$449||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$530|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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