skip to main content
Washington State Institute for Public Policy
Back Button

Mentoring: School-based by teachers or staff

Public Health & Prevention: School-based
Benefit-cost methods last updated December 2023.  Literature review updated May 2018.
Open PDF
In school-based mentoring programs, mentors and students meet in schools for one-on-one or small group meetings to build interpersonal relationships, support prosocial behavior, and support academic achievement. Among studies in this analysis, mentors are school teachers or staff members. Mentors typically receive some initial training and ongoing support throughout the course of the intervention. Participants were elementary, middle, and high school students identified by teachers or staff as being at risk. At-risk students include students struggling to meet academic standards, exhibiting behavioral and social-emotional problems, and/or having a history of absences and discipline referrals. Participants in the included studies received weekly mentoring between 4 and 9 months.
For an overview of WSIPP's Benefit-Cost Model, please see this guide. The estimates shown are present value, life cycle benefits and costs. All dollars are expressed in the base year chosen for this analysis (2022). The chance the benefits exceed the costs are derived from a Monte Carlo risk analysis. The details on this, as well as the economic discount rates and other relevant parameters are described in our Technical Documentation.
Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant
Benefits to:
Taxpayers $5,333 Benefits minus costs $19,244
Participants $12,561 Benefit to cost ratio $5.95
Others $7,442 Chance the program will produce
Indirect ($2,207) benefits greater than the costs 71%
Total benefits $23,129
Net program cost ($3,885)
Benefits minus cost $19,244

^WSIPP’s benefit-cost model does not monetize this outcome.

Meta-analysis is a statistical method to combine the results from separate studies on a program, policy, or topic in order to estimate its effect on an outcome. WSIPP systematically evaluates all credible evaluations we can locate on each topic. The outcomes measured are the types of program impacts that were measured in the research literature (for example, crime or educational attainment). Treatment N represents the total number of individuals or units in the treatment group across the included studies.

An effect size (ES) is a standard metric that summarizes the degree to which a program or policy affects a measured outcome. If the effect size is positive, the outcome increases. If the effect size is negative, the outcome decreases. See Estimating Program Effects Using Effect Sizes for additional information.

Adjusted effect sizes are used to calculate the benefits from our benefit cost model. WSIPP may adjust effect sizes based on methodological characteristics of the study. For example, we may adjust effect sizes when a study has a weak research design or when the program developer is involved in the research. The magnitude of these adjustments varies depending on the topic area.

WSIPP may also adjust the second ES measurement. Research shows the magnitude of some effect sizes decrease over time. For those effect sizes, we estimate outcome-based adjustments which we apply between the first time ES is estimated and the second time ES is estimated. We also report the unadjusted effect size to show the effect sizes before any adjustments have been made. More details about these adjustments can be found in our Technical Documentation.

Meta-Analysis of Program Effects
Outcomes measured Treatment age No. of effect sizes Treatment N Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)
First time ES is estimated Second time ES is estimated
ES SE Age ES SE Age ES p-value
10 2 108 0.051 0.260 10 n/a n/a n/a 0.143 0.377
10 1 66 0.262 0.337 18 0.262 0.337 18 0.689 0.068
10 1 111 -0.131 0.535 10 n/a n/a n/a -0.344 0.562
10 2 127 -0.204 0.159 10 n/a n/a n/a -0.719 0.077
10 2 77 0.152 0.211 10 n/a n/a n/a 0.399 0.060
10 1 111 -0.085 0.133 10 -0.047 0.082 13 -0.224 0.094
10 1 111 -0.110 0.133 10 -0.110 0.133 12 -0.289 0.031
1In addition to the outcomes measured in the meta-analysis table, WSIPP measures benefits and costs estimated from other outcomes associated with those reported in the evaluation literature. For example, empirical research demonstrates that high school graduation leads to reduced crime. These associated measures provide a more complete picture of the detailed costs and benefits of the program.

2“Others” includes benefits to people other than taxpayers and participants. Depending on the program, it could include reductions in crime victimization, the economic benefits from a more educated workforce, and the benefits from employer-paid health insurance.

3“Indirect benefits” includes estimates of the net changes in the value of a statistical life and net changes in the deadweight costs of taxation.
Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant
Affected outcome: Resulting benefits:1 Benefits accrue to:
Taxpayers Participants Others2 Indirect3 Total
High school graduation Criminal justice system $66 $0 $146 $33 $245
Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation $5,862 $13,808 $7,505 $0 $27,175
Costs of higher education ($856) ($1,296) ($389) ($428) ($2,969)
Externalizing behavior symptoms K-12 special education $85 $0 $0 $42 $127
Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms $174 $49 $179 $87 $489
Internalizing symptoms K-12 grade repetition $3 $0 $0 $1 $4
Program cost Adjustment for deadweight cost of program $0 $0 $0 ($1,942) ($1,942)
Totals $5,333 $12,561 $7,442 ($2,207) $23,129
Click here to see populations selected
Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant
Annual cost Year dollars Summary
Program costs $3,293 2016 Present value of net program costs (in 2022 dollars) ($3,885)
Comparison costs $0 2016 Cost range (+ or -) 20%
The annual per-participant cost estimate is based on a weighted average estimate of teacher or staff time used to mentor students. We use the average Washington State compensation costs (including benefits) for K–12 teachers and staff as reported by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. On average, teachers and staff in the included studies provided 68 hours of mentoring time for over four months and received an average of $55 per hour.
The figures shown are estimates of the costs to implement programs in Washington. The comparison group costs reflect either no treatment or treatment as usual, depending on how effect sizes were calculated in the meta-analysis. The cost range reported above reflects potential variation or uncertainty in the cost estimate; more detail can be found in our Technical Documentation.
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)
The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Citations Used in the Meta-Analysis

Converse, N., & Lignugaris-Kraft, B. (2008). Evaluation of a school-based mentoring program for at-risk middle school youth. Remedial and Special Education, 30(1), 33-46.

DeSocio, J., VanCura, M., Nelson, L.A., Hewitt, G., Kitzman, H., & Cole, R. (2007). Engaging truant adolescents: Results from a multifaceted intervention pilot. Preventing School Failure, 51(3), 3-9.

Wyman, P.A., Cross, W., Hendricks, B.C., Yu, Q., Tu, X., & Eberly, S. (2010). Intervention to strengthen emotional self-regulation in children with emerging mental health problems: Proximal impact on school behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, (38)5, 707-720.