|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,627||Benefits minus costs||$16,650|
|Participants||$10,932||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.80|
|Others||$6,561||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,001)||benefits greater than the costs||71 %|
|Net program cost||($3,469)|
|Benefits minus cost||$16,650|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Office discipline referrals^
Referrals of a student to an administrative office for disciplinary reasons.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|High school graduation||Criminal justice system||$63||$0||$139||$31||$233|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$5,160||$12,121||$6,625||$0||$23,906|
|Costs of higher education||($815)||($1,235)||($370)||($408)||($2,828)|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||K-12 special education||$57||$0||$0||$28||$85|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$161||$45||$166||$80||$453|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,735)||($1,735)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,293||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,469)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Converse, N., & Lignugaris-Kraft, B. (2008). Evaluation of a school-based mentoring program for at-risk middle school youth. Remedial and Special Education, 30(1), 33-46.
DeSocio, J., VanCura, M., Nelson, L.A., Hewitt, G., Kitzman, H., & Cole, R. (2007). Engaging truant adolescents: Results from a multifaceted intervention pilot. Preventing School Failure, 51(3), 3-9.
Wyman, P.A., Cross, W., Hendricks, B.C., Yu, Q., Tu, X., & Eberly, S. (2010). Intervention to strengthen emotional self-regulation in children with emerging mental health problems: Proximal impact on school behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, (38)5, 707-720.