|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$764||Benefits minus costs||($590)|
|Participants||$323||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.57|
|Others||$32||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($331)||benefits greater than the costs||47 %|
|Net program cost||($1,378)|
|Benefits minus cost||($590)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Child abuse and neglect
Substantiated or founded reports to child protective services.
The removal of a child from parental care, most often to foster care.
“Final” placement in a permanent home, which can include reunification with parents, formalized guardianships, or legal adoption.
The number of times children in out-of-home care are transferred from one home to another.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Child abuse and neglect||Criminal justice system||$13||$0||$24||$6||$43|
|Child abuse and neglect||$26||$10||$0||$13||$49|
|K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$1||$2|
|K-12 special education||$34||$0||$0||$17||$51|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with PTSD||$8||$2||$8||$4||$22|
|Labor market earnings associated with child abuse & neglect||$130||$306||$0||$0||$436|
|Mortality associated with child abuse and neglect||$2||$5||$0||$43||$50|
|Out-of-home placement||Out-of-home placement||$550||$0||$0||$275||$825|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($689)||($689)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,331||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,378)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2017||Cost range (+ or -)||15 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Oxford, M.L., Spieker, S.J., Lohr, M.J., & Fleming, C.B. (2016). Promoting First Relationships®: Randomized trial of a 10-week home visiting program with families referred to Child Protective Services. Child Maltreatment, 21(4), 267-277.
Spieker, S.J., Oxford, M.L., & Fleming, C.B. (2014). Permanency outcomes for toddlers in child welfare two years after a randomized trial of a parenting intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 201-206.