Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6,338||Benefits minus costs||$23,308|
|Participants||$1,182||Benefit to cost ratio||$17.78|
|Others||$14,997||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,180||benefits greater than the costs||83 %|
|Net program cost||($1,389)|
|Benefits minus cost||$23,308|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Arrests, charges, convictions, or incarcerations for domestic violence.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$5,881||$0||$14,292||$2,941||$23,114|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$588||$1,381||$764||$0||$2,733|
|Costs of higher education||($131)||($199)||($60)||($66)||($455)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($695)||($695)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,370||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,389)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Gilman, A., & Walker, S. (2019). Evaluating the effects of an adolescent family violence intervention program on recidivism among court-involved youth. (Unpublished manuscript)
Organizational Research Services. (2005). King County Step-up Program Evaluation. Seattle, Washington.