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Domestic violence perpetrator treatment (Duluth-based model)

Adult Criminal Justice
Benefit-cost methods last updated December 2023.  Literature review updated August 2014.
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The Duluth-based model of domestic violence perpetrator treatment was developed in the 1980s in Duluth, MN and is now the most common treatment for domestic violence perpetrators. Washington’s legal standards for domestic violence treatment (as well as those of 25 other states) require treatment to be group-based and incorporate elements of the Duluth-based model. The treatment approach assumes that domestic violence “ a gender-specific behavior which is socially and historically constructed. Men are socialized to take control and to use physical force when necessary to maintain dominance.”* Treatment involves educational meetings and peer-group therapy provided in prison or in the community. The focus of each element is usually on understanding the social conditions that foster domestic violence and building skills to make accountable decisions, though sometimes the programs also include elements of cognitive-behavioral instruction.
Participants in these studies received between two and seven months of treatment in the Duluth-based model. They were compared to similar individuals who received monitoring, probation, or community service.

*Ganley, A. (1996). Understanding domestic violence. In: W. Warshaw & A. Ganley (eds.), Improving Health Care Response to Domestic Violence (pp. 15-44). San Francisco: Futures Without Violence.
For an overview of WSIPP's Benefit-Cost Model, please see this guide. The estimates shown are present value, life cycle benefits and costs. All dollars are expressed in the base year chosen for this analysis (2022). The chance the benefits exceed the costs are derived from a Monte Carlo risk analysis. The details on this, as well as the economic discount rates and other relevant parameters are described in our Technical Documentation.
Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant
Benefits to:
Taxpayers ($475) Benefits minus costs ($4,219)
Participants $0 Benefit to cost ratio ($1.47)
Others ($943) Chance the program will produce
Indirect ($1,092) benefits greater than the costs 24%
Total benefits ($2,510)
Net program cost ($1,708)
Benefits minus cost ($4,219)

^WSIPP’s benefit-cost model does not monetize this outcome.

Meta-analysis is a statistical method to combine the results from separate studies on a program, policy, or topic in order to estimate its effect on an outcome. WSIPP systematically evaluates all credible evaluations we can locate on each topic. The outcomes measured are the types of program impacts that were measured in the research literature (for example, crime or educational attainment). Treatment N represents the total number of individuals or units in the treatment group across the included studies.

An effect size (ES) is a standard metric that summarizes the degree to which a program or policy affects a measured outcome. If the effect size is positive, the outcome increases. If the effect size is negative, the outcome decreases. See Estimating Program Effects Using Effect Sizes for additional information.

Adjusted effect sizes are used to calculate the benefits from our benefit cost model. WSIPP may adjust effect sizes based on methodological characteristics of the study. For example, we may adjust effect sizes when a study has a weak research design or when the program developer is involved in the research. The magnitude of these adjustments varies depending on the topic area.

WSIPP may also adjust the second ES measurement. Research shows the magnitude of some effect sizes decrease over time. For those effect sizes, we estimate outcome-based adjustments which we apply between the first time ES is estimated and the second time ES is estimated. We also report the unadjusted effect size to show the effect sizes before any adjustments have been made. More details about these adjustments can be found in our Technical Documentation.

Meta-Analysis of Program Effects
Outcomes measured Treatment age No. of effect sizes Treatment N Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)
First time ES is estimated Second time ES is estimated
ES SE Age ES SE Age ES p-value
36 7 1143 0.016 0.057 38 0.016 0.057 48 0.012 0.894
36 7 1143 0.048 0.074 38 n/a n/a n/a 0.037 0.722
1In addition to the outcomes measured in the meta-analysis table, WSIPP measures benefits and costs estimated from other outcomes associated with those reported in the evaluation literature. For example, empirical research demonstrates that high school graduation leads to reduced crime. These associated measures provide a more complete picture of the detailed costs and benefits of the program.

2“Others” includes benefits to people other than taxpayers and participants. Depending on the program, it could include reductions in crime victimization, the economic benefits from a more educated workforce, and the benefits from employer-paid health insurance.

3“Indirect benefits” includes estimates of the net changes in the value of a statistical life and net changes in the deadweight costs of taxation.
Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant
Affected outcome: Resulting benefits:1 Benefits accrue to:
Taxpayers Participants Others2 Indirect3 Total
Crime Criminal justice system ($475) $0 ($943) ($238) ($1,656)
Program cost Adjustment for deadweight cost of program $0 $0 $0 ($854) ($854)
Totals ($475) $0 ($943) ($1,092) ($2,510)
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Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant
Annual cost Year dollars Summary
Program costs $1,365 2011 Present value of net program costs (in 2022 dollars) ($1,708)
Comparison costs $0 2011 Cost range (+ or -) 50%
Our per-participant cost estimate is the middle of the range of costs, based on a survey of seven treatment providers in Olympia, Seattle, Bellingham, Yakima, Spokane, and Moses Lake on 6/16/2011. All offenders are on probation; program costs are in addition to the cost of probation.
The figures shown are estimates of the costs to implement programs in Washington. The comparison group costs reflect either no treatment or treatment as usual, depending on how effect sizes were calculated in the meta-analysis. The cost range reported above reflects potential variation or uncertainty in the cost estimate; more detail can be found in our Technical Documentation.
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)
The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Citations Used in the Meta-Analysis

Davis, R.C., Taylor, B.G., & Maxwell, C.D. (2000). Does batterer treatment reduce violence? A randomized experiment in Brooklyn (Document No. NCJ 180772). New York: Victim Services Research.

Feder, L., & Forde, D.R. (2000). A test of the efficacy of court-mandated counseling for domestic violence offenders: The Broward experiment (Final report, Document No. NCJ 184752). Memphis, TN: University of Memphis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Gordon, J.A., & Moriarty, L.J. (2003). The effects of domestic violence batterer treatment on domestic violence recidivism: The Chesterfield County experience. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(1), 118-134.

Haggard, U., Freij, I., Danielsson, M., Wenander, D., & Langstrom, N. (2015). Effectiveness of the IDAP treatment program for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence: A controlled study of criminal recidivism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Harrell, A.V. (1991). Evaluation of court-ordered treatment for domestic violence offenders (Final report). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Labriola, M., Rempel, M., & Davis, R.C. (2008). Do batterer programs reduce recidivism? Results from a randomized trial in the Bronx. Justice Quarterly, 25(2), 252-282.