|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,013||Benefits minus costs||$8,888|
|Participants||$3,768||Benefit to cost ratio||$20.31|
|Others||$1,706||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$861||benefits greater than the costs||74 %|
|Net program cost||($460)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,888|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$233||$547||$298||$298||$1,376|
|K-12 grade repetition||$6||$0||$0||$3||$9|
|K-12 special education||$284||$0||$0||$142||$426|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$770||$218||$795||$385||$2,168|
|Costs of higher education||($37)||($56)||($17)||($18)||($127)|
|From secondary participant|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$1,252||$2,942||$0||$0||$4,194|
|Health care associated with major depression||$407||$115||$420||$204||$1,147|
|Mortality associated with depression||$1||$2||$0||$29||$32|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($230)||($230)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,468||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($460)|
|Comparison costs||$956||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||5||Primary||14||781||-0.144||0.073||5||0.000||0.141||6||-0.391||0.001|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||5||Primary||13||610||-0.137||0.086||5||-0.076||0.061||8||-0.490||0.001|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||5||Primary||1||47||-0.475||0.229||5||-0.261||0.178||8||-0.475||0.029|
|Major depressive disorder||35||Secondary||3||55||-0.333||0.297||35||-0.173||0.364||37||-1.057||0.123|
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