|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,061||Benefits minus costs||$8,724|
|Participants||$3,822||Benefit to cost ratio||$19.69|
|Others||$1,735||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$573||benefits greater than the costs||74 %|
|Net program cost||($467)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,724|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
How well individuals (typically those who are developmentally disabled or seriously mentally ill) have adapted to activities of daily living.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$98||$0||$212||$49||$359|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$236||$554||$302||$0||$1,093|
|K-12 special education||$288||$0||$0||$144||$432|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$784||$222||$809||$392||$2,207|
|Costs of higher education||($37)||($56)||($17)||($19)||($129)|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$6||$0||$0||$3||$9|
|From secondary participant|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$1,270||$2,983||$0||$0||$4,253|
|Health care associated with major depression||$415||$117||$428||$207||$1,168|
|Mortality associated with depression||$1||$2||$0||$29||$33|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($233)||($233)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,468||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($467)|
|Comparison costs||$956||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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