|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,325||Benefits minus costs||$1,102|
|Participants||$3,801||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.27|
|Others||$678||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,645)||benefits greater than the costs||52 %|
|Net program cost||($4,057)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,102|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
How well individuals (typically those who are developmentally disabled or seriously mentally ill) have adapted to activities of daily living.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Anxiety disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$7||$0||$0||$4||$11|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$1,557||$3,657||$0||$0||$5,213|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$64||$0||$151||$32||$248|
|K-12 special education||$186||$0||$0||$93||$279|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$510||$144||$526||$255||$1,436|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,029)||($2,029)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,676||2000||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,057)|
|Comparison costs||$956||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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