|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,615||Benefits minus costs||$8,922|
|Participants||$5,210||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.43|
|Others||$3,348||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($608)||benefits greater than the costs||57 %|
|Net program cost||($1,644)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,922|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$2,449||$5,753||$3,035||$0||$11,237|
|K-12 grade repetition||($1)||$0||$0||($1)||($2)|
|K-12 special education||$148||$0||$0||$74||$222|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||($262)||($616)||$0||$0||($879)|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||($45)||($13)||($47)||($23)||($127)|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$304||$86||$314||$152||$855|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$4||$0||$0||($820)||($816)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,501||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,644)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||9||1||40||-0.019||0.221||9||0.000||0.141||10||-0.083||0.706|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||9||5||195||-0.081||0.109||10||-0.045||0.068||13||-0.270||0.157|
|Major depressive disorder||9||1||40||0.000||0.294||9||0.000||0.310||11||0.000||1.000|
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