|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$855||Benefits minus costs||$2,271|
|Participants||$465||Benefit to cost ratio||$30.47|
|Others||$720||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$309||benefits greater than the costs||95 %|
|Net program cost||($77)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,271|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$160||$376||$205||$0||$742|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$2||$7|
|K-12 special education||$238||$0||$0||$119||$357|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$453||$128||$468||$227||$1,275|
|Costs of higher education||($26)||($40)||($12)||($13)||($90)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($39)||($39)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,008||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($77)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||7||Primary||4||158||-0.072||0.119||7||0.000||0.141||8||-0.310||0.035|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||7||Primary||13||754||-0.149||0.057||7||-0.082||0.049||10||-0.526||0.001|
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