Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,554||Benefits minus costs||$31,037|
|Participants||$1,026||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.26|
|Others||$24,874||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,542||benefits greater than the costs||99 %|
|Net program cost||($4,959)|
|Benefits minus cost||$31,037|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Criminal offenses that are drug-related (e.g., illegal drug possession or drug trafficking).
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$8,158||$0||$24,261||$4,079||$36,498|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$511||$1,201||$665||$0||$2,378|
|Costs of higher education||($115)||($175)||($52)||($58)||($400)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,479)||($2,479)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$4,522||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,959)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Gordon, J.A. (2002). Barrett Juvenile Correctional Center: Is it effective? A comparison of youth released from a residential substance abuse treatment center to youth at a traditional juvenile correctional center. Richmond, VA: Virginia Commonwealth University.