|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,355||Benefits minus costs||($11,742)|
|Participants||$800||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.00|
|Others||$458||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($4,634)||benefits greater than the costs||26%|
|Net program cost||($11,721)|
|Benefits minus cost||($11,742)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Any form of welfare assistance, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Any employment, including part-time work.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$243||$570||$301||($121)||$992|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$50||$0||$0||$25||$74|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$1,830||$0||$0||$915||$2,745|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$72||$20||$74||$36||$201|
|From secondary participant|
|Public assistance||Public assistance||$866||($316)||$0||$433||$983|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$214||$503||$0||($107)||$610|
|Health care associated with major depression||$80||$23||$83||$40||$226|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$6||$7|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5,860)||($5,860)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$7,600||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($11,721)|
|Comparison costs||$1,679||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10%|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Roggman, L.A., Boyce, L.K., & Cook, G.A. (2009). Keeping kids on track: Impacts of a parenting-focused early head start program on attachment security and cognitive development. Early Education and Development, 20(6), 920-941.
Vogel, C.A., Xue, Y., Moiduddin, E.M., Carlson, B.L., & Kisker, E. (2010). Early Head Start children in grade 5: Long-term follow-up of the Early Head Start research and evaluation study sample (Final Report) (Document No. PR10-61). Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.