|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6,590||Benefits minus costs||$15,232|
|Participants||$12,154||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.15|
|Others||$6,412||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,836)||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($7,088)|
|Benefits minus cost||$15,232|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Underlying mental processes that are necessary to facilitate self-regulation, decision making, self-control, etc., typically measured with validated assessments.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Office discipline referrals^
Referrals of a student to an administrative office for disciplinary reasons.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$5,174||$12,154||$6,412||$0||$23,740|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$154||$0||$0||$77||$231|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$1,262||$0||$0||$631||$1,892|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($3,544)||($3,544)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$9,330||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($7,088)|
|Comparison costs||$2,340||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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