|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$525||Benefits minus costs||$1,020|
|Participants||$279||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.30|
|Others||$510||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$15||benefits greater than the costs||89 %|
|Net program cost||($309)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,020|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Social and emotional development^
A broad range of skills relevant to self, emotion, and relationships. These skills are typically measured through validated assessments that measure self-awareness, social competence, and self-control.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$38||$0||$89||$19||$145|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$93||$218||$119||($46)||$383|
|K-12 special education||$111||$0||$0||$55||$166|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$299||$85||$309||$150||$843|
|Costs of higher education||($16)||($24)||($7)||($8)||($54)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($154)||($154)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$289||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($309)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Connolly, P., Miller, S., Kee, F., Sloan, S., Gildea, A., McIntosh, E. . . . Bland, M. (2018). Cluster randomised controlled trial and evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis of the Roots of Empathy schools-based programme for improving social and emotional well-being outcomes among 8- to 9-year-olds in Northern Ireland. Place of publication not identified: NIHR Journals Library.
Kendall, G., Schonert-Reichl, K., Smith, V., Jacoby, P., Austin, R., Stanley, F., & Hertzman, C. (2006). The evaluation of Roots of Empathy in Western Australian schools 2005. Perth, WA: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research.
Latch, D., Stauffer, M., & Bolling, M. (2017). Evaluation of the Roots of Empathy program in Switzerland, Years 2015 to 2017: Full Report. Bern Switzerland: Bern University of Applied Sciences.
Schonert-Reichl, K.A., Smith, V., Zaidman-Zait, A., & Hertzman, C. (2012). Promoting children’s prosocial behaviors in school: Impact of the “Roots of Empathy” program on the social and emotional competence of school-aged children. Social Mental Health: a Multidisciplinary Research and Practice Journal, 4(1), 1-21.
Wrigley, J., Makara, K., & Elliot, D. (2016). Evaluation of Roots of Empathy in Scotland 2014-2015. Final Report. York, England: Action for Children