|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3||Benefits minus costs||($2,405)|
|Participants||($124)||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.47)|
|Others||$139||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($789)||benefits greater than the costs||0 %|
|Net program cost||($1,634)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,405)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Percent change in labor market earnings, typically weekly or monthly wages.
“All-cause mortality,” or the proportion of all deaths in a given population during a specified period of time, regardless of the cause.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$56||$0||$139||$28||$222|
|Earnings||Labor market earnings||($53)||($124)||$0||$0||($177)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($817)||($817)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,403||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,634)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2008||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Gelber, A., Isen, A., & Kessler, J.B. (2016). The effects of youth employment: Evidence from New York City lotteries. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(1), 423-460.
Heller, S.B. (2014). Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth. Science New York Then Washington-, 346, 6214, 1219-1222.