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The Washington State Institute for Public Policy was directed in EHB 3901 to conduct a study of reasonable, affordable child care co-payments that are realistic for low-income families. The Institute was also asked to review the child care co-payment schedules of other jurisdictions and to model the economic impact of child care co-payments on low-income families. Washington State's new child care co-payment schedule became effective on November 1,1997. The new schedule is the result of the same legislation that created WorkFirst, the state's response to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PL104-193).The employment emphasis of WorkFirst makes the state's child care subsidy program a critical element of welfare reform.
In 1996, a survey and review of juvenile curfew/parental responsibility ordinances in the cities of Washington State was conducted as part of the Institute’s research efforts concerning juvenile violence and prevention. In order to update information regarding juvenile curfew/parental responsibility ordinances in Washington State, the Institute conducted another survey in 1997. This report reviews the structure and purpose of the juvenile curfew and provides a brief overview of legal questions regarding juvenile curfews. It also describes juvenile curfews in effect in Washington State in 1997 and summarizes findings from the Institute’s 1997 survey.
In 1996, Congress amended the federal law that requires states to register sex offenders. These amendments, known as "Megan's Law," authorize the public release of information about registered sex offenders when necessary to protect public safety. This report analyzes the 47 states with Megan’s Laws. These state laws can be divided into three categories, organized principally by the degree of notification: 1) Broad community notification; 2) Notification to individuals and organizations at risk; or 3) Access to registration information. This report also discusses implementation issues, offender harassment, and legal challenges to these laws. A summary of notification programs in other countries is provided.
At the request of the Washington State Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration, the Institute for Public Policy conducted an analysis of the recidivism of juvenile offenders placed on community supervision. Youth placed in the following programs were included in this analysis: Option B, SSODA, Probation, and Diversion. The Institute was also asked to assess how the Consolidated Juvenile Services (CJS) funding allocation factors are related to juvenile recidivism. This report includes findings on the recidivism of juveniles in these programs and the potential policy and funding implications.
The 1996 Washington State Legislature appropriated 2.35 million dollars to twelve juvenile courts for early intervention programs to target youth placed on probation for the first time and considered at high risk to reoffend. The goal of these programs is to prevent youth from becoming entrenched in the court system. This report summarizes the assessments of high-risk youth who had been screened for the program as of May 1997. It provides a descriptive portrait of these individuals, their characteristics, and family environments.
The Youth Violence Prevention and Intervention Program is administered through the Washington State Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development. The program administers a grant using federal and state funds for community-based youth violence prevention and intervention projects across Washington State. For the fiscal years 1994-1996, 2.05 million dollars were spent on these projects; 31 percent was funded by the state and the remainder by the federal government. This report summarizes evaluation results for projects funded from 1994 through 1996.
In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed the Community Protection Act, a comprehensive set of laws that increased prison terms for sex offenders, established registration and notification laws, authorized funds for treatment of adult and juvenile sex offenders, and provided services for victims of sexual assault. The legislation directed the Institute to evaluate the effectiveness of these state-supported programs. This chartbook contains information selected from this research.
To establish an accurate measure of the costs of supervising offenders sentenced in juvenile court, the Institute conducted a survey of the 33 juvenile courts in Washington. The survey was designed in cooperation with the Washington Association of Juvenile Court Administrators. This report highlights the findings from this survey, including information on caseloads and average costs of detention facilities and community supervision programs in Washington State.
Community Public Health and Safety Networks were created out of the 1994 Violence Reduction Act. Networks were charged with reducing violence, specifically youth violence, along with seven other "at-risk" behaviors. Fifty-three networks were established and required to submit comprehensive plans to the Family Policy Council. These plans highlighted at least three at-risk behaviors to be targeted for reduction. Following approval of their plans, performance contracts were established that included a statement of work and specific performance measures. As the contracts progress, the state and networks will gain knowledge on the relative effectiveness of approaches. The report contains chosen risk factors, baseline rates, and targeted outcomes for 17 of the networks.
The guidelines established by the Juvenile Justice Act of 1977 determine in large part how juvenile offenders are sentenced in Washington State. This report examines how three primary sentencing factors—a juvenile's crime, criminal history, and age—will affect the chance the juvenile will re-offend as a young adult.