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This review presents the historical development of federal legislation that addresses the education of children with disabilities. Additionally, it presents the federal requirements the state must meet when delivering and funding special education programs under the federal constitution, current federal statutes, regulations and selected court cases.
This review examines the requirements the state must meet for the delivery and the funding of special education under the state law governing the education of children with disabilities.
The Family Income Study is a five-year longitudinal study of Washington households. We compared the characteristics of women who received welfare (Aid to Families with Dependent Children - AFDC) with women who were considered to be "working poor."1 All respondents had at least one child. We used characteristics of women respondents in the first year of the study for comparison. There were significant differences during the women's youth and in their current characteristics.
There are two schools of thought about the requirements of a successful welfare-towork
program: One believes women on welfare should be encouraged to work, even at low-paying
jobs, because steady work experience is a rung on a wage ladder that leads to jobs at higher wages.
The other believes women on welfare should be encouraged to enroll in education and training to
improve their skills and only take jobs with higher wages, because low-paying jobs are a dead end.
Previously, the Family Income Study found that both education/training and work experience affect the possibility of a woman leaving and staying off welfare. In this paper, we address the effects of work experience. We examined the hourly wages of women in the AFDC sample, who worked at least three months in any year during the five-year study period (1988-1992), to see if it was possible to climb a wage ladder.
Several members of Washington's House of Representatives asked the Institute to summarize the research on the role single member districts and other electoral arrangements may play in local government in increasing both voter turnout and representation for minority groups. This report reviews the literature on alternative, proportional representation arrangements in local elections in the United States, comparing their impact with that of single member and at-large districts.
This document can assist policymakers in understanding the major research findings in juvenile delinquency. It summarizes key findings and offers an overview of various topics, including: juvenile delinquency risk factors, program effectiveness, juvenile detention, and delinquency prevention.
The 1994 Legislature determined that Washington's juvenile justice system requires "substantial revision," and created a legislative task force to review the system. To assist in this endeavor, the Institute reviewed the major trends in the nation regarding juvenile justice.
This brief is a review of five welfare-to-work approaches that proved beneficial to welfare recipients.
New Chance was a national demonstration program that targeted young women who received welfare. Participants were 16 to 22 years old, gave birth as teenagers, and were high school dropouts. Immediate objectives were to increase educational attainment, increase contraceptive use, and improve parenting skills. Long-term objectives were to increase employment and decrease welfare use. The evaluation of New Chance was conducted by Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC). Women in the experimental and control groups were interviewed at 18 months after entering the program. The findings presented here summarize the results of the 18-month follow-up.
The Riverside GAIN program, one of the six counties in the experimental evaluation of California's Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program, had the best results to date for a large welfare-to-work demonstration program. GAIN was evaluated by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) over a 36-month follow-up period. The findings presented here summarize these results.