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Since the publication of Washington State's Work Ethic Camp: Proposal for an Evaluation (Institute, October 1993), Washington State opened the Work Ethic Camp for adult offenders, and passed legislation to develop a Basic Training Camp for juvenile offenders. This paper discusses both of these developments, and provides an update of the national research findings on this topic.
Proposals to limit the length of time a family could receive welfare (Aid to Families With Dependent Children--AFDC) have been made at both the federal and state levels. Limits of two and five years are most common. Although a time limit was not adopted in Washington State in 1995, the legislature passed E2SHB 2798 during the 1994 legislative session. When it goes into effect, this legislation will reduce a family's monthly AFDC check by 10 percent after the fourth year.
Employment has been the major pathway off welfare (Aid to Families With Dependent Children -
AFDC) in Washington State. Employment has also been emphasized in recent welfare reform
proposals at the national level. Because most women on welfare earn low hourly wages when they
work, it is difficult for them to leave and stay off welfare.
This paper examines the reasons why women on welfare increased their hourly wages, above their starting wage, while they were employed during the Family Income Study period. Starting wages depended upon womens educational level, previous work experience, age, and local labor markets.
The 1993 Legislature passed ESHB 1408, which established a statewide media campaign and local community-based programs to prevent teenage pregnancy. The overall goal of the legislation was to reduce teen births. The legislation called for the community-based programs to be evaluated by changes in teenage pregnancy rates in each county. This report provides the results of a review of teenage child birth rates for Washington State and for each of the 39 counties.
This report provides preliminary results from an outcome evaluation of the community-based teen pregnancy prevention program, known as the "advocacy program," that began its services in Lewis and Mason Counties in July 1994. This evaluation covers the period July 1994 through 1995. The advocacy program was one of 12 community-based programs selected by the Department of Health (DOH) to receive state funds under ESHB 1408.
This paper discusses the possible impacts of the federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), a cash refund, on low income families in Washington State. Both Washington State's minimum wage and the federal EITC were increased in 1994. These two increases meant that a woman could have a higher potential income from working at the minimum wage than she would have from welfare, or when compared to the federal poverty guideline or the Washington Need Standard.
This analysis examines actual monthly income and expenses for families that left and successfully stayed off AFDC for at least three consecutive years, during 1988-1992. It also examines the relationship of marital status to staying off welfare.
In 1990 the Washington Legislature responded to the requirements of the federal 1988 Family Policy Act and created a presumptive statewide schedule for child support determination. In 1993, the Washington State Institute for Public Policy was asked by legislative leaders to analyze patterns of actual child support orders, to compare the state's support schedule with other states, and to compare the guidelines to the cost of raising children. To conduct this research, the Institute relied on a sample of child support summary reports, which are completed in county superior courts when child support decisions are made. The time period for the reports in the sample was between June 1993 and May 1994.
In 1990, the legislature directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy to study the effectiveness of the Special Sex Offender Sentencing Alternative (SSOSA). Legislators wanted to know if this treatment option, which allows judges to order community treatment for eligible sex offenders, compromised public safety. This publication reports on three studies regarding sex offenders that are designed to answer policymakers' questions. Each study addresses a particular aspect of recidivism.