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The 2021 Washington State Legislature directed WSIPP to review the research for any relationships between adolescent substance use and adolescent nutrition on subsequent mental illness in early adulthood.
For substance use, we found that adolescent alcohol use was associated with an increased risk of later depression. Adolescent cannabis use was associated with an increased risk for depression and psychosis, but we found no evidence that adolescent misuse of opioids or cocaine is associated with mental illness in young adults.
For nutrition, we found that higher quality diet in adolescence was associated with a lower risk for later depression. Obesity during adolescence was associated with an increased risk for depression in young adults, especially in females. Finally, we found no evidence of a link between adolescent intake of omega-3 fatty acids and any mental illness in young adulthood.